First aid in a domestic accident!
Having knowledge of First Aid is essential to prevent accidents at home and prevent them from becoming serious. That is why our attitude is very important. We must be calm and serene, and act in an order to properly care for the wounded. This is the order in which we must act:
- Protect the injured (get him out of the hazardous environment),
- Request external help, depending on the severity we will need or not the presence of an emergency team.
- Helping the injured while the requested help arrives, it is essential to assess the “vital signs” to know if there is correct perfusion of organs, the level of consciousness, if there is spontaneous breathing or if there is a heartbeat.
Do not forget how important it is to know first aid techniques, such as having a first aid kit at home or knowing when to call emergency services.
In case a burn occurs the first thing to do is irrigate the area with saline, apply local cold by placing a cloth between the skin and the cold focus and go to the emergency room. Most household burns are mild or Grade I (local redness) or moderate or Grade II (local blister) whose most frequent treatment is occlusive dressing with ointment (usually silver sulfadiazine).
Poisoning: there are several types of poisoning at home, depending on its origin, the protocol to follow will be different:
- Carbon monoxide poisoning, colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas produced during combustion, especially in closed and poorly ventilated spaces. Symptoms range from dizziness, weakness, shortness of breath, lightheadedness, disorientation, or nausea. What should we do immediately? Alert the emergency team and open the windows.
- Drug poisoning is usually accidental, so it is recommended to keep the drugs in their containers or use the weekly pillboxes so as not to be confused with the dose. At the risk of poisoning of this type should call emergency services.
- Poisoning by household chemicals is usually due to accidental intake of cleaning products or inhalation of the mixture of different products. You should also contact your doctor as soon as possible.
In case of ingestion of inedible products we will consult with the National Institute of Toxicology: 91 562 04 20 (available 24 hours a day) where they will indicate the behavior to follow.
In case of choking, it is essential to clear the airway so we will encourage the patient to cough (if conscious) and, if necessary, we will execute the Heimlich maneuver chest compressions at the intracisternal level, catching the injured from behind.
Elderly and children, the most vulnerable population
In the elderly, the incidence and significance of domestic accidents are higher due to several factors: they are longer at home, loss of physiological abilities, and the presence of disabling diseases. Falls are the main cause of injury in the elderly, with the risk of fracture that this entails. Therefore, the domestic environment must be adapted to avoid accidents. The correct lighting at any time of the day is another of the precautions to be taken into account, for example, placing night pilots, especially in the bathroom. We will also avoid carpets and put non-slip stickers on the shower tray along with a handle.
As for the child population, the incidence in order of importance of domestic accidents would be: Falls and trauma, poisoning, burns, and drowning. Special relevance has control over the size of toys, if they are less than 3 cm the risk of ingestion and choking is very high. Also, avoid leaving windows open or putting cleaning products or medicines out of the reach of children. Other general measures would be the protection of stoves, radiators, sockets, corners of tables and furniture, cables, and electrical instruments.